Bibliography Examples

Citing your Sources


World Wide Web/Internet:

A web site with one author:

Ashmawy, Alaa. Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. 26 August 1997.


A web site without an author:

Welcome to the White House. U.S. Government. 3 September 1999.


Book Citations:

Book with one author:

Lavender, David. Snowbound: The Tragic Story of the Donner Party.

New York: Holiday House, 1996.

The author is listed, last name first. The title is underlined. The city where the book is published is listed followed by a colon and the name of the publisher followed by a comma. The year the book is published is then listed followed by a period.

Book with two authors:

Lurie, Jon and Jimmy Clarke. Fundamental Snowboarding. New York: Lerner, 1996.

A book that has an editor:

Ehrlich, Amy, ed. When I was Your Age: Original Stories About Growing Up.

Cambridge, Mass.: Candlewick Press, 1996.

If the city of publication is unfamiliar, the name of the state or country is listed as well.

A book without an author:

Mobil Travel Guide, Southeast. New York: Fodor's Travel Publication, 1997.

An article in a book without an author:

"Fiji." The World Fact Book. Central Intelligence Agency: Washington, 1997.

The title of the article is listed before the title of the book.

Encyclopedia and Other Reference Books:

An encyclopedia article may or may not have an author. The author's name can be found at the end of the article. An article that has an author is called a "signed article."

Signed articles:

Sutherland, Zena. "Literature for Children." World Book Encyclopedia. Volume 12.

Chicago: World Book, 1997.

The name of the encyclopedia article is placed after the author's name and put in quotation marks.

Unsigned articles:

"Motion." Encyclopedia Americana. Volume 19. Danbury, Connecticut: Groliers, 1994.

Magazines and Newspapers:

Magazines and newspapers are good sources for locating current information. When citing a magazine or newspapers [sometimes called periodicals], use the following formats. Periodical articles may or may not have an author.


Signed Articles:

Taylor, Phil. "Center of the Storm." Sports Illustrated. 15 December 1997: 62-67.

The author's name is given first, the name of the article, then the name of the magazine, the date of the magazine, a colon and then the page number(s).


"Algeria Allegedly Turns Blind Eye to Massacre." Chicago Tribune. 5 January 1998.   Section 1, page 4.

If the article has an author, it is placed before the name of the article.

Other non-book materials:

When using non-book materials, include the publication medium (CD-ROM or World Wide Web, etc.), the vendor's and publisher's names (if known), and the date of database publication.

Newspaper or Magazine Database:

Smith, Wes and Gary Marx. "U.S. Seizes Unabomer Suspect." Chicago Tribune. 4 April 1996. Section 1, Page 1. Chicago Tribune CD-ROM. Newsbank, Inc. 1996

Boustany, Nora. "Postwar Iraq: A Still-Shaken People." Washington Post. 9 February 1993. Version 2.3. SIRS CD-ROM. Sirs, Inc. 1997.

Monaco, John E., "When the Diabetic Child is Hospitalized." Pediatrics for Parents. Volume 17, Issue 1: 6. HealthSource Version 5.0, CD-ROM. Ebsco. 1996.

The citation looks like a regular newspaper or magazine citation, until the end where the type of product (CD-ROM) is listed, and then the publisher of the CD-ROM.

Non-book Reference:

"Maya Angelou." UXL Biographies. Version 2.0. CD-ROM. Farmington Hills, MI: UXL, 1999.

"Belize." UXL Worldmark. Version 1.0. CD-ROM. Farmington Hills, MI: UXL, 1997.

Burke, Ronald. "Vatican City." World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia. CD-ROM. Chicago: World Book, Inc., 1999.


Blair, Tony. Interview. Prime Minister's Office. 31 May 2003. 13 Apr. 2006

Chirac, Jacques. Interview. Time 16 Feb. 2003. 10 Oct. 2005

Longin, Hellmut. Telephone interview. 3 May 2006.

Neilsen, Jerry. E-mail interview. 28 Apr. 2006.

Wyse, Randall. Personal interview. 24 July 2005.


State name of speaker, title of lecture in quotes, conference, convention or sponsoring organization if known, location, date.

Bradley, Vicki. "Marriage." Agnes Arnold Hall, U of Houston. 15 Mar. 2003.


How to Cite Film, Video, and Online Media

Citing Film and Video
Single Performances and Music Videos as part of longer DVD, video, or film
Citing TV and Radio
Citing Online Media Resources (web sites, online media files, etc.)

The following citation style is a slightly adapted version of the MLA style sheet.

Film and Video

In citing film and other media, use the citation form for the format in which you watched the work being cited. For example:

Include the following elements in the following order. Include as much information as is available from the media package or other sources. If you are citing the contribution of a particular performer or the director of a work, you may choose to include the person's name first in the citation (last name, first name)

You may include other data that seem pertinent, such as writer of screenplay or writer of work upon which the film is based, depending on the focus of your research.

If the work being cited is the original format (i.e. if you've viewed the film in a theater), cite the Studio Name OR Production Company followed by production date OR original release date (If known)


Citizen Kane. Dir. Orson Welles. Perfs. Orson Welles, Joseph Cotten. RKO Radio Pictures, 1941.

Fahrenheit 9/11. Dir. Michael Moore. Lions Gate Films, 2006.

Film, citing a contributor first:

Kazan, Elia, dir. On the Waterfront. Perfs. Marlon Brando, Lee J. Cobb, Rod Steiger, Eva Marie Saint. Columbia Pictures Corporation, 1954.

Karloff, Boris, perf. Frankenstein. Dir. James Whale. Perfs. Boris Karloff, Colin Clive, Mae Clark. Universal Pictures, 1931.

Gore, Al, perf. An Inconvenient Truth. Dir. Davis Guggenheim. Lawrence Bender Productions, 2006.

Rozsa, Miklos, comp. Spellbound. Dir. Alfred Hitchcock. Perfs. Ingrid Bergman, Gregory Peck. United Artists, 1945. DVD/Videorecording:

Breathless (À Bout de Souffle). Dir. Jean-Luc Godard. Perfs. Jean-Paul Belmondo, Jean Seberg, Liliane David. 1960. DVD. Criterion Collection, 2007.

Frankenstein. Dir. James Whale. Perfs. Boris Karloff, Colin Clive, Mae Clark. 1931. DVD. Universal Pictures, 2006.

America's Least Wanted . Prod. Rebecca Haggerty, Susan Levine, Jamie McClelland, Adele Rice and Jaime Yassin. Videocassette. Paper Tiger TV, 1995.

Story of Change. Prod. UNICEF. Filmed and edited by, Byron Blunt. Videocassette. Nairobi, Kenya: UNICEF, 1998.

DVD/Videorecording, citing a contributor first:

Schrader, Paul, writer. Taxi Driver. Dir. Martin Scorsese. Perfs. Robert De Niro, Jodie Foster. 1976. DVD. Columbia TriStar Home Video, 1999.

Brooks, Albert, perf. Taxi Driver. Dir. Martin Scorsese. Perfs. Robert De Niro, Jodie Foster. 1976. DVD. Columbia TriStar Home Video, 1999.

Wexler, Haskell, cinematographer. Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? . Dir. Mike Nichols. Perfs. Elizabeth Taylor, Richard Burton, George Segal, Sandy Dennis. 1966. DVD. Warner Home Video, 2006.

Faulkner, William, screenplay. To Have and Have Not. Based on the novel by Ernest Hemingway. Dir. Howard Hawks. Perfs. Humphrey Bogart, Walter Brennan, Lauren Bacall. 1945. DVD. Warner Home Video, 2003.

Hemingway, Ernest. To Have and Have Not. Screenplay by William Faulkner. Dir. Howard Hawks. Perfs. Humphrey Bogart, Walter Brennan, Lauren Bacall. 1945. DVD. Warner Home Video, 2003.

DVD/Videorecording, citing additional information about the work or the particular release.

Metropolis. Dir. Fritz Lang. Perfs. Gustav Fröhlich, Brigitte Helm, Alfred Abel. 1926. DVD. Restored authorized edition; digitally remastered. Kino International Corporation, 2002.

Man with a Movie Camera (Chelovek s kinoapparatom). Dir. Dziga Vertov. Original music composed and performed by the Alloy Orchestra. 1929. DVD. Kino International Corporation, 1997.

Mindwalk. Based on the book "The Turning Point" by Fritjof Capra. Dir. Bernt Amadeus Capra. Perfs. Liv Ullman, Sam Waterston, John Heard, Ione Skye. DVD Paramount Pictures, 2000.

DVD/Videorecording, citing supplementary material contained on disc:

"Making of the Mutuals" (supplmentary visual essay by Sam Gill). The Chaplin Mutuals. Volume 3. DVD. Image Entertainment, 1995.

"The Early Sound Era" (supplementary material on DVD release of The Jazz Singer). 2006 <cite the date the supplement was produced, if known>. DVD. Warner Home Video, 2007.

DVD/Videorecording of a work originally broadcast on television

Summer of Love. American Experience. Prod. and dir., Gail Dolgin & Vicente Franco. PBS. WGBH in association with KQED. DVD PBS Home Video, 2007.

Medicine at the Crossroads. Prod. 13/WNET and BBC TV. DVD. PBS Home Video, 1993.

"Bringing up Buster." Arrested Development (Season 1). Perfs. Alia Shawkat, David Cross, Jason Bateman, Jeffrey Tambor. DVD. Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2006.

"Ku Klux Klan: The Invisible Empire." CBS Reports. Prod. and dir. David Lowe. Correspondent: Charles Kuralt. 1982. DVD. Films for the Humanities & Sciences, 2002.

Capote, Truman. "A Christmas Memory." Hallmark Hall of Fame. Dir. Glenn Jordan. Perf. Patty Duke, Piper Laurie, Jeffrey DeMunn. 1997. DVD. Lions Gate, 2000.

DVD/Videorecording of a series originally broadcast on television. Citing installment in series:

  • Title of the episode in quotation marks.
  • Name of the series or program in italics.
  • Director, producer, other significant individuals involved
  • Publication medium (e.g. DVD).
  • Distributor, followed by date of the DVD (NOT the original broadcast)

"The House We Live In." Race, The Power of an Illusion. Prod., Christine Herbes-Sommers; series prod., Larry Adelman. DVD. California Newsreel, 2003.

Scorsese, Martin, Exec. Prod. "Feel like going home." Martin Scorsese Presents The Blues. DVD. Seattle, WA: Vulcan Productions, Inc.; Berlin: Road Movies Filmproduktion Gmbh, 2003.

"When Things Get Tough." The War. Dir. Ken Burns. Prod. Florentine Films and WETA Washington D.C. DVD. PBS Home Video; Paramount Home Entertainment, 2007.

"Ain't Scared of your Jails, 1960-1961." Eyes on the Prize: America's Civil Rights Years, 3. Prod. WGBH Boston; Blackhawk Films, 1986. DVD. PBS Video, 2006.

Single Performance, Music Videos, and Other Single Work as part of longer DVD, Video, or Film

"Official War Film W.F. 13." World War II Films. Prod. US Office of War Information. 1943. DVD., 2007.
or, if emphasizing issuing agency:

US Office of War Information. "Official War Film W.F. 13." World War II Films. 1943. DVD., 2007.

Cage, John. "Chess Serenade: For Piano." The Works for Piano. John Cage. Vol. 7. DVD. Mode Productions, 2006

Calloway, Cab. "Hi-de-ho." Best of Jazz and Blues. 1933. DVD. Kino on Video, c2001.

The Chemical Brothers. The Work of Director Michel Gondry. DVD. Palm Pictures, 2003.

"Lindy Hop (1937)." Perf, Mama Lu Parks' Jazz Dancers. Dance Black America. Videocassette. Dance Horizons Video, 1990.

or, if emphasizing the performers:

Mama Lu Parks' Jazz Dancers. "Lindy Hop (1937)." Dance Black America. Videocassette. Dance Horizons Video, 1990.

Television and Radio

Include the following elements in the following order.

Examples :

Woody Allen: A Documentary. American Masters. Dir. and prod., Robert Weide. PBS. WNET, Channel 13. 10 Feb. 2012.
Racism 101. Prod. Thomas Lennon. PBS. KQED, San Francisco. 5 Oct. 1988.

White House Prayer Breakfast. Al Gore (Introduction), Bill Clinton (Address), Rev. Gerald Mann (Closing prayer), Rabbi Alan Cohen (Interview)." C-SPAN, Washington, D.C. 11 Sept. 1998.

"Torture." Narr. Scott Pelley. Sixty Minutes. CBS. WCBS, New York. 30 March 2008.

"War Against Iraq Begins." Narr. Peter Jennings, Ted Koppel. Nightline. ABC. KGO, San Francisco, 16 Jan. 1991.

"Car Crash on I-80." Ten O'clock News. KNBC, Los Angeles. 16 Jan. 1991.

"The Arsenal of Democracy." The Great Depression; 7. Prod. Blackside, Inc.; Exec Prod Henry Hampton. WGBH, Boston. 1 Mar. 1993.

Afghanistan: the Great Game. NPR, Washington, D.C. 8 Feb. 1980.

"Mumia Abu Jamal: 15th Anniversary of His Arrest." Democracy Now. Pacifica. KPFA-FM, Berkeley, CA. 9 Dec. 1996.

"Trash of the Titans." The Simpsons, Season 9. Dir. Jim Reardon, Mark Kirkland, et al. Voices: Dan Castellaneta, Julie Kavner, Nancy Cartwright, Yeardley Smith, Hank Azaria, Harry Shearer. CBS. KPIX, San Francisco. 10 September 2006.

"Emerging Tigers." Narr. Ress Jones. Prod. John Hawke. Asian Business Report. PBS. WEFT, New York. 15 August 1990.

For advertisements and other broadcasts without a fixed programming schedule, you may chose to include the time of the broadcast:

Levi Strauss Co. Levi Dockers Advertisement. Aired 10:35pm. CBS. KPIX, San Francisco. 5 August 1999.

Broadcast Interviews

Order and punctuation:

Interviewee (last name first). Interviewer. Title of the program. Network. Local Affiliate, City. Date of Broadcast.


Clinton, Bill. Interview with Larry King. Larry King Live. CNN. 24 June 2004.

Cain, Bruce E. Interview. Ten O'Clock News. CBS. KPIX, San Francisco. 10 October 2007.

Depp, Johnny. Interview with James Lipton. Inside the Actors Studio. PBS. KQED, San Francisco. 7 April 2008.

Web Other Online Media

  • Author's Last Name, First Name OR Corporate/Institutional Author Name (if known)
  • Title of Document or File
  • Document date OR date of last revision
  • Medium (e.g. Online video clip)
  • Title of larger web site in which clip is located
  • Name of hosting library or agency (if appropriate).
  • Access Date
  • URL <web address>


Lucasfilm, Ltd. "Star Wars Trailer." 05 November 1999. Online video clip. Star Wars Official Site. Accessed on 02 April 2008. <>

"Daughter Turns Dad In." CNN Video. Online video clip. Accessed on 04 April 2008. <>

"Free Speech Movement: The Cartop Ralley, Oct. 1-2, 1964." 05 August 1999. Online audio clip. UC Berkeley Library Social Activism Sound Recording Project: The Free Speech Movement and Its Legacy. University of California at Berkeley. Library, Media Resources Center. Accessed on 02 April 2008. <>

"Gene Map of Brain Offers Hope for Alzheimer's, Autism." 29 Nov. 2006. Webcast. The News Hour with Jim Lehrer. PBS. KQED, San Francisco. Accessed on 02 December 2006 .

Shimabukuro, Jake. "Ukulele weeps by Jake Shimabukuro." 04 April 2008. Online video clip. YouTube. Accessed on 22 April 2006. <>

Society of Spectacle. Dir. Guy Debord. 1973. Online video clip. Accessed on 09 October 2007. <>


Name of author, host or producer (if available). "Title of podcast." Date of podcast. Podcast. "Title of Podcast show." (if different than title of podcast). Title of larger site (if available). Date of download.


Mondello, Bob. "Charlton Heston, Old-School Gentleman, Dies at 84." 8 May 2008. Podcast. "NPR Movies." National Public Radio. 10 April 2008. <>

Where to find the information in your source:

Information for bibliographies is taken right from the source. Look at the title page for the publisher, city, and author. Copyright information is found on the verso page. Web sites are listed in the location bar of the web browser.


biography --- A book written about a person's life.

bibliography --- A list of reference materials used in creating a report or paper.

citation --- Source of information used in a report.

ed. --- after a name, indicates editor as opposed to author

et al. --- "and others"

periodical --- Publication, especially magazine or newspaper that is printed in regular intervals.

place --- City where the publisher is located.

publisher --- The company that produces the material.

signed --- An article that has an author listed.

verso --- Opposite of the title page (the left page of a book).


Oaklea Middle School Website. How to Cite the Internet. 5 November 2001.


How to Write a Bibliography - Examples in MLA Style. 30 August 2010.


How to Cite Media. 18 April 2016.